ОГЭ Задания по чтению
Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А – G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1 – 8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.
1. International language
2. English was not for everyone
3. American English
4. Necessary for communication
5. Former British colonies
6. The Norman conquest of England
7. Efficient ways to learn English
8. English-speaking countries
A. The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange of the peoples.
B. Today English is the language of the world. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
C. English is not only the national or official language of some thirty states which represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organisation and other political organisations. It is the language of literature, education, modem music, international tourism.
D. What did the Norman Conquest do to England? It gave it French kings and nobles who brought with them the French language. After the Norman Conquest there were three languages in England. There was Latin, the language of the church in which all learned men wrote and spoke. Then there was French, the language which the kings and nobles spoke and wrote. Finally, there was the English language which remained the language of poor people who did not understand French or Latin but spoke only English.
E. So far there is no universal or ideal method of learning languages. Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to study grammar or to leam new words. But it is well known that reading original books in English, listening to the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When learning a foreign language you leam the culture and history of native speakers.
F. The conquest of England by the Normans began in 1066 with the battle of Hastings, where the English fought against the Normans. The conquest was complete in 1086. Who were these Normans who conquered England? They were Vikings or ‘Norsemen’, men from the North. Some 150 years before the conquest of England they came to a part of France, opposite England, a part which we now call Normandy.
G. The beginning of 1600thwas the English colonization of North America and the creation of an American dialect. Some pronunciations and usages didn’t change when they reached the American shore. In certain respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modem British English is. Some “Americanisms” are actually originally British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost at home (e.g., fall as a synonym for autumn, trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend).
Задание 10 - 17
Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений 10 – 17 соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). В поле ответа запишите одну цифру, которая соответствует номеру правильного ответа.
Graffiti - A Dangerous Way of Life
While scrawling graffiti is seen as a crime in the UK, yet in the US it has become a recognized art form.
Just a few weeks ago eight graffiti gang members were convicted of causing £5,000 worth of damage on the London Underground. They are among more than 70 hard-core graffiti artists thought to be operating in London today. Most are aged under 20.
Graffiti artists, or ‘graffers’, operate in many British towns. They often work at night, covering walls, trains and railway stations with brightly painted murals or scrawls in spray paint and marker pen.
Some people regard graffiti as a form of vandalism and a menace. London Underground says that railusers find it ugly and offensive. It spends £2m a year dealing with graffiti, and has even introduced trains with graffiti-resistant paint. “We don’t think it’s artistic or creative – it’s vandalism. It’s a huge nuisance to our customers, and it’s ugly and offensive,” says Serena Holley, a spokeswoman for the London Underground. “It creates a sense of anarchy and chaos,” says Richard Mandel, a barrister who prosecuted the graffiti gang. “Passengers feel as if the whole rail system is out of control.”
British Transport Police has a graffiti unit designed to catch graffers in the act. It spent five months tracking down the recently prosecuted gang.
Graffiti art can also be a dangerous pastime. The London Underground says that some teenagers have died in accidents during nocturnal graffiti ‘raids’.
However, others say that graffiti at its best is an art form. Art galleries in London and New York have exhibited work by increasingly famous graffiti artists. “Of course graffiti is art.
There’s no question about that,” says David Grob, director of the Grob Gallery in London. Even some of those who think graffiti is wrong admit that graffers are talented. “It’s just that their artistic talent is channeled in the wrong direction,” says Barry Kogan, a barrister who represented Declan Rooney, one of the gang members.
There is a difference between ‘good graffiti’ and vandalism, says Dean Colman, a 24-year-old graffiti artist. “I’d never spray private property, like someone’s house. Some graffiti are disgusting. There’s a big difference between that and graffiti which can brighten up grey walls.”
Dean makes a living as a graffiti artist. His days of illegal spraying are behind him, he says. He has worked on a television programme about graffiti, designed a series of government posters, and decorated nightclubs. He has exhibited his work at Battersea Arts Centre in London, and he has taught graffiti-spraying in youth clubs.
Dean sees himself as an artist, and thinks that graffiti art does not get due recognition. “There’s no graffiti art in the Tate Gallery and there should be,” he says. “Graffiti is a valid as any other art form.”